Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances that modify immune responses. They can be both endogenous (produced naturally within the body) and exogenous (as pharmaceutical drugs), and they can either enhance an immune response or suppress it. Some of these substances arouse the body's response to an infection, and others can keep the response from becoming excessive. Thus they serve as immunomodulators in immunotherapy (therapy that makes use of immune responses), which can be helpful in treating cancer (where targeted therapy often relies on the immune system being used to attack cancer cells) and in treating autoimmune diseases (in which the immune system attacks the self), such as some kinds of arthritisand dermatitis. Most BRMs are biopharmaceuticals (biologics), including monoclonal antibodies, interleukin 2, interferons, and various types of colony-stimulating factors (e.g., CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF). "Immunotherapy makes use of BRMs to enhance the activity of the immune system to increase the body's natural defense mechanisms against cancer", whereas BRMs for rheumatoid arthritis aim to reduce inflammation. Some of the effects of BRMs include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, fever and chills, muscle aches, weakness, skin rash an increased tendency to bleed, or swelling.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F ) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%. However, when a medication is administered via other routes (such as orally), its bioavailability generally decreases (due to incomplete absorption and first-pass metabolism) or may vary from patient to patient. Bioavailability is one of the essential tools in pharmacokinetics, as bioavailability must be considered when calculating dosages for non-intravenous routes of administration. For dietary supplements, herbs and other nutrients in which the route of administration is nearly always oral, bioavailability generally designates simply the quantity or fraction of the ingested dose that is absorbed. Bioavailability is defined slightly differently for drugs as opposed to dietary supplements primarily due to the method of administration and Food and Drug Administration regulations.
This article is about BOTANICAL extracts. An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold as tinctures or in powder form.
The aromatic principles of many spices, nuts, herbs, fruits, etc., and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extracts being almond, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, lemon, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, pistachio, rose, spearmint, vanilla, violet, and wintergreen.
Cannabidiol—CBD—is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “stoned” and can actually counteract the psychoactivity of THC. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive or less psychoactive than THC-dominant strains makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, anxiety, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and other conditions without disconcerting feelings of lethargy or dysphoria.
Scientific and clinical research—much of it sponsored by the US government—underscores CBD’s potential as a treatment for a wide range of conditions, including arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, MS, chronic pain, schizophrenia, PTSD, depression, antibiotic-resistant infections, epilepsy, and other neurological disorders. CBD has demonstrable neuroprotective and neurogenic effects, and its anti-cancer properties are currently being investigated at several academic research centers in the United States and elsewhere. Further evidence suggests that CBD is safe even at high doses.
Almost everyone wants to know where to get CBD-rich products and how to use them for maximum benefit. After decades in which only high-THC cannabis was available in North America and beyond, CBD-rich strains and products are now available to medical users.
“CBD-rich” versus “CBD dominant:” By “CBD-rich,” we mean a cannabis strain or product that has equal amounts of CBD and THC, or more CBD than THC (usually at least 4 percent CBD by dry weight.). By “CBD-dominant,” we mean strains or products that are CBD-rich but have very little THC content.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is a type of cannabinoid that was discovered in the 1960s along with cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabidivarin (CBDV), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV).
Upon their discovery, further studies were conducted to understand the marijuana plant’s biology. In 1975, researchers isolated cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), the acid version of CBG.
The researchers found that CBGA is broken down by the plant’s natural enzymes into other acidic cannabinoids, namely THCA, CBDA, and CBCA. These acids are then converted to THC, CBD, and CBC when the plant is heated or aged (also known as decarboxylation).
In other words, CBG comes from CBGA, which is essential to the production of all other cannabinoids.
However, CBG is not found in high concentrations in most strains. Certain strains of hemp may have higher CBG content, but in general, most cannabis plants contain less than 1% CBG.
Breeders interested in producing cannabis strains with higher CBG content can try extracting CBG from budding plants when they are 6 weeks old or experiment with crossbreeding to produce a strain higher in CBG.
CBG is important because of its numerous health benefits, especially for people with disorders affecting the central nervous system, including neurological diseases, skin disorders, chronic pain, and others.
CBN is one of many compounds that contribute to marijuana’s effects on the mind and body.
When it comes to the effects of marijuana, compounds like THC and CBD receive most of the attention.
But there are many other compounds in marijuana that contribute to its health effects, including CBN.
CBN enhances the effects of other cannabinoids like THC and CBD, while also providing its own unique effects.
What Are Cannabinoids?
Cannabinoids are a large class of chemical compounds produced by the cannabis plant.
Scientists have identified over 113 different cannabinoids in the marijuana plant. Each interacts with the endocannabinoid system in different ways.
Cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system through the CB1 and CB2 receptors. This alters cellular functions in the body to create a diverse range of effects.
The endocannabinoid system is a key mediator of homeostasis, or balance, in the body.
Most of the cannabinoid compounds in marijuana are non-psychoactive. This means that they do not produce a euphoric high when consumed. THC is one of the few cannabinoids in the plant that causes a high.
CBC is a unique chemical in marijuana that offers many health benefits.
While most people are familiar with THC and CBD, there are many chemicals in marijuana that contribute to its diverse effects on the human body.
These effects include protecting neurons from damage, pain relief, suppressing nausea and vomiting, and many more.
Cannabichromene (CBC) is an important chemical in marijuana that demonstrates the complexity of how the cannabis plant works.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain. Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by animals), the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially). The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major constituent of the plant. There are at least 113 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects.
Synthetic cannabinoids encompass a variety of distinct chemical classes: the classical cannabinoids structurally related to THC, the nonclassical cannabinoids (cannabimimetics) including the aminoalkylindoles, 1,5-diarylpyrazoles, quinolines, and arylsulfonamides as well as eicosanoids related to endocannabinoids.
CANNABINOID RECEPTOR SYSTEM (ECS):
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
Cannabinoid receptors are of a class of cell membrane receptors in the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. As is typical of G protein-coupled receptors, the cannabinoid receptors contain seven transmembrane spanning domains. Cannabinoid receptors are activated by three major groups of ligands: endocannabinoids, produced by the mammillary body; plant cannabinoids (such as cannabidiol, produced by the cannabis plant); and synthetic cannabinoids (such as HU-210). All of the endocannabinoids and plant cannabinoids are lipophilic, such as fat soluble compounds.
There are currently two known subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptor is expressed mainly in the brain (central nervous system or "CNS"), but also in the lungs, liver and kidneys. The CB2 receptor is expressed mainly in the immune system and in hematopoietic cells. Mounting evidence suggests that there are novel cannabinoid receptors that is, non-CB1 and non-CB2, which are expressed in endothelial cells and in the CNS. In 2007, the binding of several cannabinoids to the G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 in the brain was described.
The protein sequences of CB1 and CB2 receptors are about 44% similar. When only the transmembrane regions of the receptors are considered, amino acid similarity between the two receptor subtypes is approximately 68%. In addition, minor variations in each receptor have been identified. Cannabinoids bind reversibly and stereo-selectively to the cannabinoid receptors. Subtype selective cannabinoids have been developed which theoretically may have advantages for treatment of certain diseases such as obesity.
It appears that cannabinoid receptors are unique to the phylum Chordata and, as such, they have a rather restricted phylogenetic distribution in the animal kingdom. However, enzymes involved in biosynthesis/inactivation of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid signalling in general (involving targets other than CB1/2-type receptors) occur throughout the animal kingdom.
Cannabidiol (INN; abbreviated as: CBD) is one of at least 113 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant's extract. CBD does not appear to have any intoxicating effects such as those caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana, but may have a downregulating impact on disordered thinking and anxiety.
Pasteur pipettes, also known as droppers or eye droppers, are used to transfer small quantities of liquids. They are usually glass tubes tapered to a narrow point, and fitted with a rubber bulb at the top. The combination of the Pasteur pipette and rubber bulb has also been referred to as a teat pipette. Pasteur pipettes come in various lengths and are sold in boxes of hundreds. They are named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, who was known to have used a variant of them extensively during his research. In the past, there was no equipment to transfer a chemical solution without exposing it to the external environment. The hygiene and purity of chemical compounds is necessary for the expected result of each experiment. The Pasteur pipette, both glass and plastic types, are sterilized and plugged with a rubber bulb at the open end of the pipette preventing any contamination from the atmosphere. Generally, they are considered cheap enough to be disposable, however, so long as the glass point is not chipped, the Pasteur pipette may be washed and reused indefinitely.
The name eye dropper also may refer to early models of fountain-pens, which have to be refilled with some kind of Pasteur pipette.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the "essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived. The term essential used here does not mean indispensable as with the terms essential amino acid or essential fatty acid which are so called since they are nutritionally required by a given living organism.
Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation, often by using steam. Other processes include expression, solvent extraction, absolute oil extraction, resin tapping, and cold pressing. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products. they're also used as an ingredient in our HEMP oil products that are RICH in CBD, and other minor-cannabinoids. We infuse first distillation organically cultivated essential oils from all over the world, into our products, and have been doing so since 2014.
HEMP SEED OIL:
Hemp oil or hempseed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Cold pressed, unrefined hemp oil is dark to clear light green in color, with a nutty flavor. The darker the color, the grassier the flavor. It should not be confused with hash oil, a tetrahydrocannabinol-containing oil made from the Cannabis flower, hailed by some for its medicinal qualities. Should not also be confused with Hemp Oil RICH in CBD or other cannabinoids. Hemp seed oil contains minute traces, if any, cannabidiol or other minor cannabinoids.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phyto-therapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine, as the practice of herbalism is not strictly based on evidence gathered using the scientific method. Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-based pharmaceutical drugs. Although phyto-therapy may apply modern standards of effectiveness testing to herbs and medicines derived from natural sources, few high-quality clinical trials and standards for purity or dosage exist. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and bee products, as well as minerals, shells and certain animal parts.
The term, phyto-medicine, may also refer to the science of pathology and damage to plants, the causes thereof, their manifestations, development, dissemination, methods for maintaining plant health, and measures used to control plant diseases and their causes.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (SI symbols L or l, commonly, but incorrectly, abbreviated as ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10×10×10 centimetres (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre.
The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI, although not an official SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English.
One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
MCT simply stands for medium chain triglycerides, as opposed to long chain triglycerides (LCT), which are found in most foods. MCT is comprised of primarily caprylic and capric fatty acids, and is a light-yellow, odorless, translucent liquid at room temperature. MCT oil occurs naturally in coconut oil and other foods. This is not to be mistaken for Organic and Natural Coconut oils, which is what CBD healing Co, Inc formulates into our products.
The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: is a unit of mass used in most British derived customary systems of measurement. The common avoirdupois ounce (approximately 28.3 grams) is 1⁄16 of a common avoirdupois pound; this is the United States customary and British imperial ounce. It is primarily used in the United States to measure packaged foods and food portions, postal items, areal density of fabric and paper, boxing gloves, and so on; but sometimes also elsewhere in the Anglosphere.
Besides the common ounce, several other ounces are in current use:
The troy ounce of about 31.1 grams is now only commonly used for the mass of precious metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium, etc.
The ounce-force is a measure of weight, that is, force.
The fluid ounce is a measure of volume.
Historically, a variety of different ounces measuring mass or volume were used in different jurisdictions by different trades.
OILS - CANNABINOID
The uniqueness of our full-spectrum CBD rich oil starts with our genetics. Our CBD Healing Company Inc, hemp plants produce over 21% cannabidiol (CBD), less than .1% THC, as well as other minor cannabinoids such as cannabigerol (CBG), Cannabinol (CBN), and Cannabichromene (CBC). Because our plants are naturally rich in terpenes and cannabinoids, the sixty plus terpenoids naturally present have evolved to support the ratio of high CBD to very low THC at cultivation. To ensure a reliable and consistent end product, we clone our plants in a NON-GMO manner. This means that our oil is naturally comprised of the most potent synergistic compounds known in medicinal cannabis.
Our proprietary, patent-pending extraction process allows us to completely remove the remaining THC without damaging, disturbing, or diluting the naturally synergistic compounds found in our plants. This means we have a purely phytocannabinoid rich registered industrial hemp oil, grown in accordance with section 7606 of the US 2018 / 2019 Farm Bill, that are completely devoid of THC, but rich in all other compounds. Together, these unique compounds work synergistically to produce the sought after “entourage effect.”
It is from this oil that we produce our Full Spectrum water soluble powder and liquid formulations, our Soft Gels, our Tinctures, our topicals, massage oils, as well as our animal health products.
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. Sources of resveratrol in food include the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries. Although it is used as a dietary supplement, there is no good evidence that consuming resveratrol affects life expectancy or human health.
The cannabis plant consists of a wide variety of chemicals and compounds. About 140 of these belong to a large class of aromatic organic hydrocarbons known as terpenes (pronounced tur-peens). You may have also heard people talk about terpenoids. The words terpene and terpenoid are increasingly used interchangeably, although these terms do have different meanings. The main difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are hydrocarbons (meaning the only elements present are carbon and hydrogen); whereas, terpenoids have been denatured by oxidation (drying and curing the flowers) or chemically modified.
Terpenes are synthesized in cannabis in secretory cells inside glandular trichomes, and production is increased with light exposure. These terpenes are mostly found in high concentrations in unfertilized female cannabis flowers prior to senescence (the condition or process of deterioration with age). The essential oil is extracted from the plant material by steam distillation or vaporization. Many terpenes vaporize around the same temperature as THC (which boils at about 157°C), but some terpenes are more volatile than others. Terpenes also play an incredibly important role by providing the plant with natural protection from bacteria and fungus, insects and other environmental stresses.
It is well established that cannabis is capable of affecting the mind, emotions and behavior. The main psychotropic cannabinoid, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been intensely studied. However, many of the other cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids found in medical marijuana that play a big role in boosting the therapeutic effect of cannabis remain understudied.
Terpenes are common constituents of flavorings and fragrances. Terpenes, unlike cannabinoids, are responsible for the aroma of cannabis. The FDA and other agencies have generally recognized terpenes as “safe.” Terpenes act on receptors and neurotransmitters; they are prone to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats; they act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (similar to antidepressants like Prozac); they enhance norepinephrine activity (similar to tricyclic antidepressants like Elavil); they increase dopamine activity; and they augment GABA (the “downer” neurotransmitter that counters glutamate, the “upper”). However, more specific research is needed for improved accuracy in describing and predicting how terpenes in cannabis can be used medicinally to help treat specific ailments / health conditions.
Traditional medical practitioners have known for millennia that plants have the power to prevent, treat or otherwise improve a number of medical conditions. Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals, such as tocopherols, polyphenols and ascorbic acid, which perform important functions in both plants and humans.
Terpenoids (aka isoprenoids) are another beneficial phytochemical — one that many people haven’t heard of before. Out of the seemingly countless compounds in plants, terpenoids represent the largest and most diverse class of beneficial chemicals.1 More than 40,000 individual terpenoids exist, and new ones are discovered every year.
Plants use terpenoid metabolites to support basic functions like growth, repair and development. However, according to research published in Advances in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, they “use the majority of terpenoids for more specialized chemical interactions and protection.
Among humans, terpenoids have long been valued for medicinal purposes in traditional Indian and Chinese medicines, and they’ve also been used for food, pharmaceutical and chemical purposes. The cancer drug Taxol and the antimalarial drug artemisinin are both terpenoid-based drugs, but the plant compounds are perhaps most well-known for being the main constituents of the essential oils in many plants.
Because they’re responsible for the wide variety of plant flavors and aromas — from flowery and fruity notes to woody undertones — they’re a sought-after commodity by the flavor and fragrance industries. Further, as noted by a study in the journal Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture.
A glass or plastic bottle which has our products infused into them. Bottles come in various size ranges measured in (Ml) - (Ml definition can be found on this page under (Ml) Those sizes range from sample bottles, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and other sizes available with special orders.
A vial (also known as a phial or flacon) is a small glass or plastic vessel or bottle, often used to store medication as liquids, powders or capsules. They can also be used as scientific sample vessels; for instance, in auto sampler devices in analytical chromatography. Vial-like glass containers date back to classical antiquity; modern vials are often made of plastics such as polypropylene. There are different types of vials such as a single dose vial and multi-dose vials often used for medications. The single dose vial is only used once whereas a multi-dose vial can be used more than once. The CDC sets specific guidelines on multi-dose vials.
A vitamin is an organic compound and an essential nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term vitaminis conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (one form of vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animals. Vitamin D is essential only for people who do not have adequate skin exposure to sunlight, as ultraviolet light promotes synthesis in skin cells. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems, but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by otherwise healthy people.
By convention the term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients, such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids and essential amino acids. Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized at present. Vitamins are classified by both biological and chemical activity, and not their structure. Thus, each vitamin refers to a number of vitamin compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic descriptor" title, such as "vitamin A", which includes the compounds retinal, retinol, and four known carotenoids. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well.
Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some, such as vitamin D, have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism, or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (such as some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g., vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C). The largest number of vitamins, the B complex vitamins, function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them; coenzymes help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. They may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes, detachable molecules that function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. For example, folic acid may carry methyl, formyl, and methylene groups in the cell. Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' best-known function, the other vitamin functions are equally important.
Until the mid-1930s, when the first commercial yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement tablets were sold, vitamins were obtained solely through food intake, and changes in diet (which, for example, could occur during a particular growing season) usually greatly altered the types and amounts of vitamins ingested. However, vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive semisynthetic and synthetic-source multivitamin dietary and food supplements and additives, since the middle of the 20th century. Study of structural activity, function and their role in maintaining health is called vitaminology.